dark energy
What is dark energy? We don't know. It's theoretical. A postulated form of energy designed to account for the universe not just expanding, but accelerating.
It's a theoretical force, hypothesized to explain how galaxies can physically accelerate away from each other, yet if we ask ourselves what dark energy is, we have to answer that we don't know.
If we ask ourselves if dark energy exists, we have to answer that if it does, we can't find it.
If we ask ourselves if the universe needs dark energy for galaxies to accelerate away fro each other, we have to answer, no. Universal acceleration does not require dark energy.
Two objects moving at a constant velocity can still accelerate away from each other. The objects themselves don’t increase or decrease in speed, but they can still accelerate away from each other. This is the universes natural acceleration.
To show the universes natural acceleration in a simple scenario, we have two drawings below of cars travelling at a constant velocity away from a single point.
In fig a, there is no acceleration. Both cars are travelling at 30 kph, and both cars start their journey at the same time, and from the same distance away from point zero. Column ‘B’ shows the increased distance between the two cars remains a constant 259 metres every minute. There is no acceleration between the two cars.
In fig b, we can see how natural acceleration between two bodies work. Both cars are travelling at 30 kph, and both cars started their journey at the same time, but, not from the same distance away from point zero. Everything that’s happening in fig a, is happening in fig b, except the starting points of the cars. In this case, the results in column ‘B’ show that even though both cars are travelling at a constant velocity, the distance between the cars increases minute after minute. The cars are accelerating away from each other even though they are not increasing their speed.
Below these drawings , I have created some simple illustrations that show the same principle in stars and galaxies.
I have also created the 'Excel Galaxy Calculator', which is a downloadable application that allows you to easily alter various elements by using drop down menus.
Index Table for the twelve simple drawings
Image a: Below is an image of stars in a night sky. The red arrows show the direction of travel
Relating to column E in the index table, the first six results show a naturally accelerating universe. ( Y )
The next six results show a universe that is not accelerating. ( N )
When you see the drawings these results relate to, you should understand that everything in the universe is naturally accelerating away from each other, but at different rates.
I created the N results in column E to show the exact criteria needed to create a universe that doesn't accelerate. However, in nature, this paradigm could never be realised.
Before we see the drawings the table relates to let's look at motion vectors of celestial objects that have been triangulated.
Image b: Adding tails to show where the stars came from
Image c: Showing triangulation
Image d: Showing the triangles corner away from the stars as 'Point zero'
The twelve drawings referenced in the index table show four possible scenarios:

Two stars leave point zero at the same time, but have different velocities

Two stars leave point zero at different times, and have different velocities

Two stars leave point zero at the same time, and travel at the same velocity

Two stars leave point zero at different times, and travel at the same velocity
The results of the drawings show two possible outcomes:

The stars accelerate away from each other, in any instance where they leave leave point zero at different times.

The stars show no acceleration from each other if they leave point zero at exactly the same time.
I must point out that I'm not disputing that dark energy might, or might not exist.
It might well exist with an acceleration of 54 metres per second. Yet the universes natural acceleration shown in the Galaxy Calculator is faster than 54 metres per second and doesn’t require dark energy.
And even if dark energy does exist, we first have to remove any natural acceleration from the equation, as any natural acceleration would diminish the amount of energy that dark energy exerts.
Download images from the links below.
Or scroll down to view.
The Excel© Galaxy Calculator
The Excel Galaxy Calculator is a downloadable application that allows you to easily alter various elements using drop down menus.
There are three pages in the Excel book:

'Sheet 1', is the calculator

The second sheet is titled, 'How to use', is a brief explanation of the features contained in Sheet 1

The third sheet is titled, 'Data', and shows various results in a simple format
Screen shot 1: This is a the Excel© calculator, available to download from the links above. It shows that there's no acceleration if both galaxies leave point zero at the same time.